Warm summer forecasted to extend through fall and winter


This summer’s warmer than average temperatures could carry over into the winter if current climate trends continue.

Two main factors affect winter weather in Southeast Alaska—the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, or PDO, and the El Nino/La Nina Oscillations or ENSO. Each factor has two phases—positive and negative and both affect sea surface water temperatures.

The positive PDO phase happens when increased storm activity in the north Pacific blows warmer water into the Gulf of Alaska and raises the average sea surface temperatures. The winds also bring air laced with moisture contributing...

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